Internet is an ocean of information. As many rivers pour water into the ocean, there are many websites providing information on photography but only a few have good quality content. Being a self taught photographer, with a 10 years of experience, I very well understand the value of finding the right information at the right time of one's learning curve. I am writing this article to provide a self learning plan along with reference to the best free learning material out there.  

The Beginning Phase

All hobbyists start here. Assuming that you already have a good quality camera, in the beginning one must focus on understanding the exposure triangle. It means practicing manual camera controls of Shutter speed, aperture and ISO. To begin with use YouTube videos to learn about exposure triangle and manual mode of your camera. You'll benefit the most by practicing as much as you can. It's true that you are your best critique but sometimes it's better to get opinion of other photographers. There are some good online FB groups, websites that provide feedback on your images. Here are few such groups that I found very helpful:

It's a very good and trusted resource for anyone who is trying to learn photography. There are many reviews, mini challenges and discussion forums. Reviews of lenses and cameras are very detailed and unbiased.

I have seen this website evolve over time. They provide many articles focused on different topics. The website has tips for beginners, genre based articles, articles on camera gear and post processing. 

This website has many good topic based articles. They also offer many certification courses. 

The Growth Phase (A)

This phase begins after one masters manual controls and develops a deep understanding of depth of field, effects of slow shutter speed. By this time photography starts to feel like more than just a hobby. This phase is marked with an increased hunger to grow, get recognition, win competitions. Many people by this time may start taking assignments such as baby shoots, product shoots, weddings, travel, etc. A person at this stage may often wonder that his or her images are just as good as the ones that get global recognition but don't understand why he or she doesn't get the same recognition. This phase can get frustrating as the growth is more internalized so there is not much external improvement that you can see but others can see the improvement in your work. This is also a good time when one should start thinking about a specialization. By this time you have mastered creative techniques and all the things that can be done with the buttons on the camera. You have understood basics of lighting in photography but still struggle to get it right sometimes. Areas to focus on during this phase are composition & storytelling. Provide yourself more photography opportunities such as traveling or working as an assistant to other photographers. Here are the best resources to help you during this phase:

B&H Event Space is one of the best learning resources out there. There are very helpful videos on different topics by special guests. 

This is a community of photographers and National Geographic Editors. Every month one or two Assignments are published and after it's over a story is published with selected photographs. Editors keep in touch during the assignment and often post updates. In the discussion board you can discuss images that you or other people plan to submit to an assignment. 

it's a very good place to get conceptually strong in photography. Resource Center section on the website is very helpful. So check it out. 

This website must be on your bookmarks. This one website will tell you about all open Photography contests, deadlines, fees (if any), prizes, etc. 

This is also similar to Contest Guru with one major difference; it is more artistic and academic in nature while Contest Guru showcases contests which are more commercial in nature. But both these websites ensure that you are aware about all major photo contests, exhibition happening in different parts of the world. 

The Growth Phase (B)

 This phase is very interesting. By now you have received some recognition in the field of photography. You have mastered composition and lighting. This is a growth period which will be marked with an improvement in concept. This is the time when you start bringing art into commercial photography to make your work more compelling and outstanding. This is the time when your personality also evolves and it becomes visible in your photography. You tend to network with other big names in the industry. Growth Phase (both A & B) can be better assisted with a Bachelor of Fine Arts Photography degree in a good photography college. But if you are someone who wants to keep it self learning then you must work hard. It gets really hard after this phase but if you have made it this far then it shows that you are special. Here are few resources available on the internet to help you get through this phase:

This is a competition website. It's very different than other highly commercial competitions. There is an artistic weight-age given to each photographer.  They have five different competitions that happen each year one after the other, each of which open for two months and concludes with the declaration of the winner. Once one competition is over entry for the second competition opens. 

Magnum Photos is an international photographic cooperative owned by its photographer-members. It is one of the most reputed agency in the field of documentary and social photography. One can learn a lot by seeing work of the other magnum photographers. 

As the name suggests this is a British magazine. It is a highly reputed agency in the field of photography. There are competitions and online learning resources that someone can benefit from. 

The Final Phase

Learning is a lifelong process but as far as learning phases are concerned in photography, this is the final phase. It is marked by factors such as by now you have published your work in several reputed international publishers, you are member of photography societies and occasionally rub shoulders with politicians and celebrities. Now you no longer look for work but assignments come to you and you have to choose the work that is worth your time. Growth from here depends on your humility. 

Hope you must have enjoyed this article. Don't forget to comment and share with your friends. 

There’s one question related to photography that, I’m sure, must come to every amateur photographer’s mind, i.e. How to make money with Photography? There are various ways to make money with your photography such as wedding photography, event photography, reportage, product, fashion portfolio, Photo tours, workshops, etc. But one, I believe, is the best of all: Stock Photography!

Let’s see why it’s the best way –

1.       Creative freedom – Let’s be honest, we all have come across clients who want you to click a picture like a picture that they pulled off the internet or saw it in their friend’s pre-wedding album. Stock photography lets you to be the boss. You shoot on your own schedule and in your own style. Most stock websites help you with the current demand or upcoming demand to help you create content that sells.

2.     Trouble free payments – Sometimes we come across a client or partner who seems really nice in the beginning but when it comes to making the payment all you get is excuses or next commitments. Stock websites have a very transparent payment system. Without any hassle your hard earned money arrives in your bank account.

3.      Broad Client Base – You go global immediately with stock photography. Major stock websites have client base of millions of buyers across the world which improves odds in favour of selling your images.

4.       Recurring accumulating returns – How many times do you get paid for a wedding or a product shoot assignment? Just once, right? Well good news is that with stock photography you can sell your photographs over and over as long as someone doesn’t buy the exclusive rights of your particular photograph.  Each photograph acts as your asset that continues to produce returns year after year. The benefit is more prominent as you go long terms with good volume of work.

5.       Seriously you still need more? Get up and sign up for stock photography websites, upload your work and start making money.

Major Stock Photography Websites –

There are pioneers in the field of stock photography and then there are newcomers. Newcomers in this field usually offer better revenue share from the sale of the images to attract more photographers. However, this doesn’t make much of a difference due to their limited client base. Pioneers, on the other hand, have a broad client base who trust the quality and service. Therefore, a single image can make much more money through multiple sales than it would make on a newcomer website through a single sale. So my recommendation is to stick to the big players. Here is a snapshot of my favorite stock websites:

 

1.       Shutterstock – This is the biggest and perhaps also the best micro-site out there. Their most popular annual subscription plan allows clients to download 350 images in a month for $169 only/- which is dirt cheap compared to agencies mentioned above. This implies that they have a huge customer base across the world. Revenue per download varies from $0.25 to $0.38 per image download for a regular subscription client. Earnings can be as much as 20-30% if your image is sold to an “On-Demand” client. To know more check out their websiteClick here to start selling your images on Shutterstock

2.       Dreamstime – This is another great micro stock site with very good revenue options. It’s currently used on a regular basis by major brands like Google, IKEA, Samsung, Walmart, and more. That’s the kind of quality that you can expect here. Click Here to start selling your images on Dreamstime. You can create your free account on Dreamstime to sell images by clicking here

3.       Getty Images – This is one of the oldest and most reputed agency. This is also the most reputed one known for their high class clients and unbeatable quality assurance. They offer several kind of subscription to clients. A single image download can cost Rs. 7,000/- to Rs. 23,000/- depending upon the size of the image being purchased. They share 20% of the earnings with you from the sale of your photographs. So that means you have the potential to make Rs. 4,600/- from a single sale of a single image! Interesting right? But it doesn’t come cheap, they require you to exclusively submit content to Getty which means you cannot submit the same photographs anywhere else for sale. But still, I think this is the best place to sell your images if your application to become a contributor is approved. To register with Getty images as a contributor click here

 

4.       i-Stock – This is a tier – II stock website by Getty Images. Not many clients can afford to pay Rs. 23,000/- for a single image download. iStock is where the majority of buyers and sellers exist. i-Stock is not exclusive which means that contributors can sell their images on other platforms too. If you choose to submit images exclusively then you may earn as much as 45% of the sale price. They also have flexible subscription plans for buyers. One can sign up for access to all images at Rs. 3,700/- per month to download up to 10 images in a month. If you submit non-exclusive then you earn flat 15% of the revenue from the sale of your images. To register with i-Stock as a contributor click here

There are more stock websites such as 123RF, alamy, Adobestock, and many more that you can try but I will strongly advise to stick to the top names. 

Shoot what sells

It must be noted that regular street photography won’t sell as stock photography. Reportage may sell under editorial section but that's it. Today photography genres are well defined and have a niche market. Usually designers, campaigners, publishing houses, advertising agencies, web designers, corporate clients and small businesses use images from stock photography websites. It matters that your images stand out. In order to make that happen you must pay attention to basic composition principles and make sure that your images are clutter free with space for text. Sometimes you may have a horizontal composition that client may like but they may need portrait orientation to design a magazine cover. Therefore, it's best to shoot in both orientations keeping the composition perfect. 

Attractive models, exotic locations, landmarks, wildlife, mouthwatering food, textures, backgrounds are all good themes to ensure your success as a stock photographer. 

Editorial vs Creative (or commercial) content

If so far you’ve not been familiar with commercial photography then it may come to you as a surprise that you cannot include any recognizable brand, person, logo or property without proper written release letter. So when you upload images you’ll have option to choose Commercial/Creative use or Editorial use. If there are recognizable people in an image then you would need model release forms signed by each recognizable individual in the photograph to be able to post it for commercial use. If it is not possible to submit a model release then most websites allow you to submit your image for editorial use only. Editorial use means for reporting a story, news, educational purpose, etc. So if you’ve been experimenting with new models or your friends then don’t forget to get the model release signed. If you can't pay the model then you can always make a trade of high quality images in exchange of model release. If you shoot a venue such as a restaurant, hotel, etc. don’t forget to get the property release signed by the owner so that you can sell the images later on for commercial use. 

Model Release (MR) & Property Release (PR)

MR or PR are a king of agreement between the photographer and the model or the property owner. In this field there is a huge possibility of exploitation and misuse of photographs. This may attract lawsuits. To prevent such a situation, stock websites require you to upload a model release or a property release if you intend to submit a photograph that contains a recognizable person or property in commercial category. Each website will have a sample format of a release but you do not need to get release signed in different formats for each website. Following are the must have elements of a release document:

  1. A release statement
  2. Usage restrictions, if any.
  3. Photograph of the Model/Property owner
  4. Photographer's details & Model's details
  5. A govt. issued Identity number/proof
  6. Photographer signature, model / owner signature & a witness. 

In case of a minor a release signed by parents will be required. So look at various formats and then design your own. 

Title and key-wording 

This is the most important aspect of being successful in stock photography besides high quality well composed images. You must properly select the title of the image, description and then use proper keywords to make your image appear in the searches. Keep the title short and crisp. Describe the content of the image, do not elaborate feelings or opinions. What, when, where, why, who answers form a good description. Tags should be single words and relevant to the image. Do not try to put in too many tags. But include keywords that come to mind as you see the image. It can be prominent colors, feeling, texture, places, etc. Never use a brand as a keyword, it will lead to rejection immediately. Let’s see this image for an example:

 

Title – An orange historic building in Shimla, India with sunset sky

Description – This image was shot at Mall Road in Shimla, Uttarakhand, India in the month of July during monsoon. The image shows a historic building with orange exterior and intricate architecture with clouds and blue sky in the background. 

Tags – historic, Shimla, India, Uttarakhand, orange, old, architecture, stormy, sky, hills, mountains, twilight, balcony, arcade, motif, facade, triangular corbels, bracket 

Accurate title, description and tags constitute the metadata for your image which helps your image to appear higher in searches by the potential clients. 

Wish you all the best. Don't forget to leave a comment or ask me any question related to stock photography.

Its been multiple times you plan an outing with your peeps to offset the banal city life but it's a rare event when the probability of all the withdrawing factors is null and finally a trip is entrenched. Haven't you planned a GOA trip before with your besties?? The answer is known to all and so is the reality!

Its the same phase we were going through, looking for an outing, the possibilities were less but the wanderlust was high in us. We look through the calendar and marked the long weekend, THREE days in a row Bang!!

As we hit the internet (OK Google!) we were in a profusion of trips just name your predicted habitat and you'll find a plethora of trips, we were more into trekking or call it a love for the mountains we chose Kareri, an untouched glacial lake in Himachal. Not wasting a second we confirmed our booking from www.justwravel.com. We were three in number but later two more friends joined.

Since the trek isn't much common we searched for some blogs and found out some scary experiences, it was written that 'it is very common to have an encounter with wild animals mostly leopards especially during the winter time when these creatures search for food in vast snow-covered mountains'. 

JustWravel is a team dedicated to making every bit of your journey memorable. Our trip itinerary as provided by the travel team was McLeod Ganj -> Kareri Village -> Trek to Reoti Village -> Kareri Lake -> Back to Reoti Village -> Back to Kareri Village -> Back to McLeod Ganj. So a total of three days with both nights stay in Reoti Village since staying at Kareri in January seems not possible.

We made our next booking which is the bus to and fro Delhi to McLeod Ganj. Our previous experiences made us book the Laxmi Holidays bus service. Their Volvo bus is a class in itself.

The journey started on time and we arrived McLeod as per scheduled. We were provided a room to freshen up and later without wasting a second we packed our breakfast and departed for Kareri village around 10:30 AM in a TATA SUMO car. The driver was daring enough to drive at a significant speed in a disintegrated muddy-rocky road. We stopped in to capture the view with a milestone.

We went on and reached the Kareri village which was the commencing point of our trek; the view from this village was extraordinary. You will not leave this village without having a thought of settling to this beautiful location. Look down to this beautiful picture from a small house where we did our lunch and were almost ready to begin the trek.


It was hardly 100-200 meters we stepped and our heartbeat quickened, it was a moment of fear but as we moved up, body maintained the pace. You won’t find any shop or mankind in your way, just a few villagers set up a small tea shop during the peak season and luckily we found one.

Our first destination was Reoti Village and we arrived around 6 in the eve. The place was so serene peaceful, it was getting dark, the air was calm but almost freezing at the same time. A small stream of water flowing down is a water of Kareri glacial lake which we were about to trek next day. The temperature upon our arrival was in sub-zero. 

The beauty of this place is best defined during the night time when you have moon right above you along with the constellation of stars. I was awestruck upon looking the snow covered mountains under the moonlight. Till now I have had just heard about the beauty of moonlight falling in the snow lighting it up, but now I witness!

Apart from the beautiful scenery, I loved the solitude and the challenging nature of the terrain. Indeed, one of my fondest memories of my Kareri Trek experience was laughing and joking with fellow trampers. Not surprisingly, much of the humor was related to the trek wilderness and past vivid experiences. It’s difficult to exaggerate just how much of it there really was!

Our next day morning was a challenging one, legs were little bit numb due to cold. We woke up freshen ourselves in nature and had a late breakfast. Ready to trek further!

This trek is lovable, you will find some amazing ice patterns and their formation like some gems, the best part was the small spaces under huge rocks gives you feeling like Man vs Wild. I tried to reproduce one scene 'to lite fire to warm ourselves' and I bet lighting a fire in such temperature and altitude is a tough task.

The destination will always leave you awed! You get goosebumps, there is a sense of proud, a strange feeling which will impact your consciousness and this can heal anything, any wound. Yes, we arrived our ultimate destination point: Kareri Glacial Lake.

There is a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva and Shakti on a hilltop overlooking the lake. You can feel the positivity in the air, one can meditate for hours and you get the best feeling getting around here and looking the scenic panorama. We went down to the frozen lake and walked a bit. However, the locals avoid stepping into frozen lake considering as a respect, fear or helping the tourists in case of emergency.

We could not camp here due to so less temperature and no availability of woods, the climate changes abruptly and staying might put you at great risks. We enjoyed much and that feeling is ingrained in us forever. We started trekking down to Reoti village in the early evening so as to reach before its dark or-else trekking down in snow could be detrimental, one wrong step and you are nowhere.

 All in all, I am happy with the trip, there were challenges but as long as you have your peeps by your side its just a roller coaster ride. I encourage all to Travel!

 

When you want to start sharing experiences of the travels you have undertaken in this wonderful journey of life, the question that stares at you is “which one to begin with?” 

After visiting various places, I decided to go Nalanda which is situated in Bihar. From many of my friends were visited there and after heard the stories I make my decision.

The famous Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, Bihar in India. At its peak, the school attracted scholars and students from near and far with some traveling all the way from Tibet, China, Korea, and Central Asia. Archaeological evidence also notes contact with the Shailendra dynasty of Indonesia, one of whose kings built a monastery in the complex. The site is located about 95 kilometers southeast of Patna near the town of Bihar Sharif and was a center of learning from the seventh century BCE to c. 1200 CE. It’s a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  This heritage site is what drew me to it. Having arrived by noon I had plenty of time to walk around the site. 

After buying tickets from the ticket counter, I had a guide who can explain the sites glory. The guide told that Nalanda was very likely ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Mameluke Dynasty of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate under Bakhtiyar Khilji in c. 1200 CE. While some sources note that the Mahavihara continued to function in a makeshift fashion for a while longer, it was eventually abandoned and forgotten until the 19th century when the site was surveyed and preliminary excavations were conducted by the Archaeological Survey of India. Systematic excavations commenced in 1915 which unearthed eleven monasteries and six brick temples neatly arranged on grounds 12 hectares (30 acres) in area. A trove of sculptures, coins, seals, and inscriptions have also been discovered in the ruins many of which are on display in the Nalanda Archaeological Museum situated nearby. Nalanda is now a notable tourist destination and a part of the Buddhist tourism circuit. 

Though the heritage takes place highly formalized methods of Vedic learning helped inspire the establishment of large teaching institutions such as Taxila, Nalanda, and Vikramshila which are often characterized as India’s early universities. Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries and later under Harsha, the emperor of Kannauj. The liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age resulted in a period of growth and prosperity until the ninth century. The subsequent centuries were a time of gradual decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pala Empire. Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from East Asia such as Xuanzang and Yijing who traveled to the Mahavihara in the 7th century. Vincent Smith remarked that “a detailed history of Nalanda would be a history of Mahayanist Buddhism”. Many of the names listed by Xuanzang in his travelogue as products of Nalanda are the names of those who developed the philosophy of Mahayana. All students at Nalanda studied Mahayana as well as the texts of the eighteen (Hinayana) sects of Buddhism. Their curriculum also included other subjects such as the Vedas, logic, Sanskrit grammar, medicine, and Samkhya.

Nalanda was initially a prosperous village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha which was then the capital of Magadha. It is said that the Jain Tirthankara, Mahavira, spent 14 rainy seasons at Nalanda. Gautama Buddha too is said to have delivered lectures in a nearby mango grove named Pavarika and one of his two chief disciples, Shariputra, was born in the area and later attained nirvana there. This traditional association with Mahavira and Buddha tenuously dates the existence of the village to at least the 5th–6th century BCE. Not much is known of Nalanda in the centuries hence. Taranatha, the 17th-century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd-century BCE Mauryan and Buddhist emperor, Ashoka, built a great temple at Nalanda at the site of Shariputra chaitya. He also places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana philosopher, Nagarjuna and his disciple, Aryadeva, at Nalanda with the former also heading the institution. Taranatha also mentions a contemporary of Nagarjuna named Suvishnu building 108 temples at the location. While this could imply that there was a flourishing center for Buddhism at Nalanda before the 3rd century, no archaeological evidence has been unearthed to support the assertion. When Faxian, an early Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to India, visited Nalo, the site of Shariputra parinirvana, at the turn of the 5th century CE, all he found worth mentioning was a stupa.

While its excavated ruins today only occupy an area of around 1,600 feet by 800 feet or roughly 12 hectares, Nalanda Mahavihara occupied a far greater area in medieval times. It was considered an architectural masterpiece and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. Nalanda was a residential school, i.e. it had dormitories for students. In its heyday, it is claimed to have accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. Chinese pilgrims estimated the number of students to have been between 3,000 and 5,000. The subjects taught at Nalanda covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia, and Turkey. Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the school in the 7th century. He described how the regularly laid-out towers, a forest of pavilions, harmikas and temples seemed to “soar above the mists in the sky” so that from their cells the monks “might witness the birth of the winds and clouds”. The pilgrim states: “An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade.

 

Its evident from the large numbers of texts that Yijing carried back with him after his 10-year residence at Nalanda, that the Mahavihara must have featured a well-equipped library. Traditional Tibetan sources mention the existence of a great library at Nalanda named Dharmaganja (Piety Mart) which comprised three large multi-storeyed buildings, the Ratnasagar (Ocean of Jewels), the Ratnodadhi (Sea of Jewels), and the Ratnaranjaka (Jewel-adorned). Ratnodadhi was nine floors high and housed the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Guhyasamaja. The exact number of volumes in the Nalanda library is not known. But it is estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands. The library not only collected religious manuscripts but also had texts on such subjects as grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine. The Nalanda library must have had a classification scheme which was possibly based on a text classification scheme developed by the Sanskrit linguist, Panini. Buddhist texts were most likely divided into three classes based on the Tripitaka’s three main divisions: the Vinaya, Sutra and the Abhidhamma.

In his biography of Xuanzang, Hwui-Li states that all the students of Nalanda studied the Great Vehicle (Mahayana) as well as the works of the eighteen (Hinayana) sects of Buddhism. In addition to these, they studied other subjects such as the Vedas, Hetuvidyā (Logic), Shabdavidya (Grammar and Philology), Chikitsa Vidya (Medicine), the works on magic (the Atharvaveda), and Samkhya. Xuanzang himself studied a number of these subjects at Nalanda under Shilabhadra and others. Besides Theology and Philosophy, frequent debates and discussions necessitated competence in Logic. A student at the Mahavihara had to be well-versed in the systems of Logic associated with all the different schools of thought of the time as he was expected to defend Buddhist systems against the others. Other subjects believed to have been taught at Nalanda include law, astronomy, and city-planning. Tibetan tradition holds that there were “four doxographies” (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) which were taught at Nalanda: Sarvastivada Vaibhashika, Sarvastivada Sautrantika, Madhyamaka, the Mahayana philosophy of Nagarjuna Chittamatra, the Mahayana philosophy of Asanga and Vasubandhu. In the 7th century, Xuanzang recorded the number of teachers at Nalanda as being around 1510. Of these, approximately 1000 were able to explain 20 collections of sutras and shastras, 500 were able to explain 30 collections, and only 10 teachers were able to explain 50 collections. Xuanzang was among the few who were able to explain 50 collections or more. At this time, only the abbot Shilabhadra had studied all the major collections of sutras and shastras at Nalanda.

A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism, both its Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions, stems from the teachers and traditions at Nalanda. Shantarakshita, who pioneered the propagation of Buddhism in Tibet in the 8th century was a scholar of Nalanda. He was invited by the Tibetan king, Khri-sron-deu-tsan, and established the monastery at Samye, serving as its first abbot. He and his disciple Kamalashila (who was also of Nalanda) essentially taught Tibetans how to do philosophy. Padmasambhava, who was also invited from Nalanda Mahavihara by the king in 747 CE, is credited as a founder of Tibetan Buddhism. The scholar Dharmakirti, one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic, as well as one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism, taught at Nalanda. Other forms of Buddhism, such as the Mahayana Buddhism followed in Vietnam, China, Korea, and Japan, flourished within the walls of the ancient school. A number of scholars have associated some Mahayana texts such as the Shurangama Sutra, an important sutra in East Asian Buddhism, with the Buddhist tradition at Nalanda. Ron Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sutra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nalanda toward the end of the Gupta period when it was translated.

The decline of Nalanda is concomitant with the disappearance of Buddhism in India. When Xuanzang traveled the length and breadth of India in the 7th century, he observed that his religion was in slow decay and even had ominous premonitions of Nalanda’s forthcoming demise. Buddhism had steadily lost popularity with the laity and thrived, thanks to royal patronage, only in the monasteries of Bihar and Bengal. By the time of the Palas, the traditional Mahayana and Hinayana forms of Buddhism were imbued with Tantric practices involving secret rituals and magic. The rise of Hindu philosophies in the subcontinent and the waning of the Buddhist Pala dynasty after the 11th century meant that Buddhism was hemmed in on multiple fronts, political, philosophical, and moral. The final blow was delivered when its still-flourishing monasteries, the last visible symbols of its existence in India, were overrun during the Muslim invasion that swept across Northern India at the turn of the 13th century.

 

At sundown, around 6:00 p.m. I returned to the car who took me to my next destination. The ruins give me a memorable day and lots of knowledge

 

Pushkar Diary

Snapoholic by Snapoholic.com